Basic Parts of Speech

Basic Parts of Speech

In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. In traditional grammar, a part of speech is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) that have similar grammatical properties. Words that are assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar syntactic behaviour as they play similar roles within the grammatical structure of sentences and sometimes similar morphology in that they undergo inflection for similar properties.

Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech. The 8 major parts of speech in English grammar are:

1) Noun

This part of a speech refers to words that are used to name persons, things, animals, places, ideas, or events. Nouns are the simplest among the 8 parts of speech, which is why they are the first ones taught to students in primary school.

2. Pronoun

A pronoun is a part of a speech which functions as a replacement for a noun. Some examples of pronouns are: I, it, he, she, mine, his, hers, we, they, theirs, and ours.

3. Adjective

This part of a speech is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives can specify the quality, the size, and the number of nouns or pronouns.

4. Verb

This is the most important part of a speech, for without a verb, a sentence would not exist. Simply put, this is a word that shows an action (physical or mental) or state of being of the subject in a sentence. Examples of “State of Being Verbs”: am, is, was, are, and were

5. Adverb
Just like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words, but the difference is that adverbs describe adjectives, verbs, or another adverb.

The different types of adverbs are:
 Adverb of Manner– this refers to how something happens or how an action is done.

 Adverb of Time- this states “when” something happens or “when” it is done.

 Adverb of Place– this tells something about “where” something happens or ”where” something is done.

 Adverb of Degree– this states the intensity or the degree to which a specific thing happens or is done.

6. Preposition

This part of a speech basically refers to words that specify location or a location in time. Examples of Prepositions: above, below, throughout, outside, before, near, and since

7. Conjunction

The conjunction is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases, or clauses together. Examples of Conjunctions: and, yet, but, for, nor, or, and so

8. Interjection

This part of a speech refers to words which express emotions. Since interjections are commonly used to convey strong emotions, they are usually followed by an exclamation point.

You must familiarize yourself with the different parts of speech discussed in this article because they are among the most fundamental concepts that you will encounter throughout your study of grammar. An in-depth knowledge of this topic will not only make you a better writer, but an effective communicator as well.

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